Monthly Archives: September 2016

Hottest U.S. Real Estate Markets for September | Katonah Real Estate

Hottest markets for September 2016

Mindy_Nicole_Photography/iStock; uschools/iStock
jjwithers/iStock; Aneese/iStock; Greg Chow

September would ordinarily be the end of the high season for residential real estate, with schools back in session across the U.S. and families reluctant to uproot. But hold on—this is no ordinary year, and a preliminary review of the month’s data on®shows that September is shaping up to be the hottest fall in a decade.

Homes for sale in September are moving 4% more quickly than last year, and that’s even as prices hit record highs. The median home price maintained August’s level of $250,000, which is 9% higher than one year ago. That’s a new high for September.

“The fundamental trends we have been seeing all year remain solidly in place as we enter the slower time of the year,” says’s chief economist, Jonathan Smoke. That means short supply and high demand, which results in high prices.

Granted, September saw a bit of the typical seasonal slowdown, with properties spending five more days on market (77) than last month—but that’s still three days faster than last year at this time. At the same time, fewer homes are coming on the market, further diminishing supply. Total inventory remains considerably lower than one year ago, leaving buyers with fewer options in a market that has already been pretty tight.

In gauging which real estate markets were seeing the most activity, our economic data team took into account the number of days that homes spend on the market (a measure of supply) and the number of views that listings on our site get (a measure of demand). The result is a list of the nation’s hottest real estate markets, where inventory moves 23 to 43 days more quickly than the national average, and listings get 1.4 to 3.7 more views than the national average.

New to the top 20 this month is Grand Rapids, MI. Like other cities on the list, “Grand Rapids” includes the greater metropolitan area, which in this case takes in Wyoming, MI. Similarly, our No. 1 market, “San Francisco,” also includes nearby Oakland and Hayward.

The hot list

20 Hottest Markets Rank
Rank Change
1 San Francisco, CA 4 3
2 Vallejo, CA 1 -1
3 Denver, CO 3 0
4 Dallas, TX 2 -2
5 San Diego, CA 6 1
6 Stockton, CA 5 -1
7 Fort Wayne, IN 11 4
8 Sacramento, CA 10 2
9 San Jose, CA 10 2
10 Waco, TX 14 5
11 Modesto, CA 13 2
12 Columbus, OH 7 -5
13 Yuba City, CA 12 -1
14 Detroit, MI 9 -5
15 Santa Rosa, CA 19 4
16 Colorado Springs, CO 16 0
17 Santa Cruz, CA 17 0
18 Kennewick, WA 18 0
19 Nashville, TN 20 1
20 Grand Rapids, MI 21 1



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‘Zombie’ foreclosures decline across the country | Cross River Real Estate

As the foreclosure crisis recedes, some unwanted consequences continue to haunt neighborhoods around the country.

“Zombie” foreclosures — those properties that are currently in the foreclosure process but vacant — fell again in the third quarter, according to Attom Data Solutions. Zombies made up 4.7% of all foreclosures, down 9% from a year ago.

Among the top ten states for zombies, there have been some big declines: zombies are down 28% in Florida, 26% in California, and 14% in Illinois compared to a year ago. But they’re up 6% in New York and 3% in Massachusetts.

Still, as the housing market stays hot, lenders seem to be moving more quickly to take possession of properties where homeowners are having trouble. The number of vacant bank-owned properties jumped 67% in the third quarter compared to a year ago, to 46,604, Attom said.

The states with the biggest number of properties in foreclosure are also the states with the most zombies. They are mostly states that require foreclosures to go through a court process, including New York, New Jersey, Florida, Illinois, and Indiana.

Judicial foreclosures can be a blessing, because they provide protections to homeowners, and a curse, because they take so long to complete. The lengthy and complicated process increases the likelihood that a foreclosure will become a zombie — but the hot housing market increases incentives for struggling homeowners to fight to hold on to their properties.


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Wondering around Harlem | Bedford NY Real Estate

The street scene in Harlem, near Lenox Avenue
Jeff Reuben/Curbed Flickr Pool

Journalists Felix Zeltner and Christina Horsten are the brains behind NYC12x12, a project in which they move to one New York City neighborhood each month, living in different areas of the city for one year. They’ll be blogging for Curbed during their journey, sharing insights and anecdotes from their travels through the five boroughs. Read on for Felix’s second dispatch, and check back for more insights from their NYC exploration.

“How do you explore a new neighborhood?” is a question we get asked often, and while it’s not alwayseasy, we have a few tried-and-true methods of finding neighborhood gems. It’s a lot of research, and after a month we have barely scratched the surface.

But we try our best, and my wife Christina is a master. Partly due to her job as a New York correspondent for a German newswire, she religiously reads everything concerning New York and rips out articles that turn into discoveries. For Harlem, she dug out a recent piece by New York magazine about African restaurants, which introduced us to Somalian and Pan-West-African kitchens.

Then there was the old New York Times piece that brought us to an apartment in Washington Heights, where the graceful Marjorie Eliot hosts jazz concerts in her living room every Sunday, free of charge. The crowd spilled out of her living room into the hallway of the building, with everybody listening silently.

We have a stack of books like The Big City and Its Little Neighborhoods, New York Originals, and the recently released Food and the City, which reveal great discoveries in every borough. To find more, we do extensive Googling of best-of lists and just recently found really good self-guided tours.

We also use apps, e.g. Google Maps, Yelp, and The Scoop, a somewhat neglected New York Times product that attempted to have staffers recommend their favorite places. (“Oh, you are the one person using it!” a NYT journalist once exclaimed when I told him that I love the app.) The restaurants are mostly too expensive for us, but the bars and cafes never fail—the Times has its own coffee critic who turns followers into coffee snobs. In Harlem, it led us to the greatness of Lenox Coffee and Double Dutch Espresso.

And then there are the people, who’ve been perhaps the most invaluable resource when wayfinding in a new neighborhood. Here’s an example: we found a printout on our doorstep just a few days after we had met our neighbors for the first time. On top there was a handwritten Post-It note. “Hi Felix and Christina,” it read. “Here’s a list of a few recommendations in Harlem. Hope you guys find a few gems on here—many I’m sure you’re already familiar with. Have fun exploring!—Neal and Daniel”

We’d met Neal and Daniel through our current subletter, Maxim, and they tipped us off to Levain Bakery, where you can buy the most delicious fresh cookies. We left a cookie at their door with a thank you note. And then this sweet couple sat down in front of their computer, compiled what they’ve learned from almost a decade of living in Harlem, and shared it with us. The two pages, held together by a paper clip, contained a list, separated into “food,” “walks,” and “oddities.” Their estimate of our knowledge was wildly exaggerated—we had never heard of most of these places.

We started with the food: Jamaican jerk chicken at the pop-up outdoor restaurant tucked in a little alley between the equally amazing Malcolm Shabazz Market and the Mist Harlem art center; pizza at Babalucci; and soul food at BLVD Bistro, all of which wowed us.

Next up are the walks: We’re excited to see the triptych by Keith Haring at the Cathedral of St. John the Divine and the architectural gems along Astor Row and Strivers Row.

Another great community resource—and a place to find things to do in every new neighborhood—is the YMCA. It already feels like a companion. We signed up with the Y in Brooklyn because they offer free childcare, but by now we have seen many of their awesome facilities. At the massive Harlem Y, you find more fun in the classrooms than anywhere else—ever heard of Dancelates?

And last but not least, we walk—an actual, aware, conscious walk, along with the occasional run. A reporter from Chinese television recently interviewed us and asked if we walk around a new neighborhood in concentric circles. We don’t—yet.

From strolling through our current neighborhood near Malcolm X Blvd, we learned one thing: We’re surrounded by some of the most beautiful people in this city and probably on earth. We never felt so underdressed as during Eid, the Muslim holiday, when the area around 125th Street transformed into a West African catwalk.

And we feel humbled every day, especially on those bright early mornings, when the sidewalk in front of our house is filling with glowing sunlight and people who are timelessly, effortlessly stylish.

One Instagram follower asked us if we can post Neal and Daniel’s full list online, and we promise to ask them once they’re back from vacation. Meanwhile, we would love to hear your ideas about exploring New York City’s neighborhoods. Any books, websites, or feeds we missed out on? Any institutions or people we should know about? Drop us a line, and we’ll share it here next time around.

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Pending Sales Decline | Waccabuc Real Estate

The Pending Home Sales Index decreased 2.4% in August, declining for the third time in four months, and falling 0.2% below its level for the same month a year ago. The Pending Home Sales Index (PHSI), a forward-looking indicator based on signed contracts reported by the National Association of Realtors (NAR),decreased to 108.5 in August from a downwardly revised 111.2 in July.


The PHSI increased 1.3% in the Northeast in August, consistent with the 6.1% increase in existing sales in the Northeast reported last week. But the PHSI decreased in the remaining regions, ranging from 0.9% in the Midwest to 3.2% in the South and 5.3% in the West. Year-over-year, the PHSI was up 5.9% in the Northeast, but fell 0.6% in the West. 1.5% in the South and 1.7% in the Midwest.

NAR attributed the PHSI decline to a lack of inventory. However, builder confidence surged in September along with consumer confidence. Also, August new home sales recorded their second strongest month since the Great Recession. These reports suggest good news for new construction as the housing recovery continues to address demand among first-time buyers and broaden across a wider range of markets during the balance of 2016.


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30-Year Fixed-Rate Mortgage Hits 10 Week Low | Katonah #RealEstate

Freddie Mac (OTCQB: FMCC) today released the results of its Primary Mortgage Market Survey® (PMMS®), showing the average 30-year fixed mortgage rate falling as the FOMC decided to leave short term rates unchanged.

News Facts

  • 30-year fixed-rate mortgage (FRM) averaged 3.42 percent with an average 0.5 point for the week ending September 29, 2016, down from last week when it averaged 3.48 percent. A year ago at this time, the 30-year FRM averaged 3.85 percent.
  • 15-year FRM this week averaged 2.72 percent with an average 0.5 point, down from last week when it averaged 2.76 percent. A year ago at this time, the 15-year FRM averaged 3.07 percent.
  • 5-year Treasury-indexed hybrid adjustable-rate mortgage (ARM) averaged 2.81 percent this week with an average 0.4 point, up from last week when it averaged 2.80 percent. A year ago, the 5-year ARM averaged 2.91 percent.

Average commitment rates should be reported along with average fees and points to reflect the total upfront cost of obtaining the mortgage. Visit the following link for the Definitions. Borrowers may still pay closing costs which are not included in the survey.

Attributed to Sean Becketti, chief economist, Freddie Mac.

“Investors flocked to the safety of government bonds causing the 10-year Treasury yield to continue its descent following the FOMC’s decision to leave rates unchanged. The 30-year fixed-rate mortgage responded by dropping 6 basis points before landing at 3.42 percent — a ten-week low. The course of the economy is uncertain, yet consumers continue to be a bright spot. The September consumer confidence index is up 3 percent to 104.1, exceeding forecasts and reaching a new cycle high.”

Home building group unveils tiny home designer series | Waccabuc Real Estate

Architect Jeffrey Dungan said it was important to keep the tiny home's dimensions between 12-feet-tall and 12 ½-feet-wide so that it could be transported by road and under bridges. The "Low Country" model pictured here at Cashiers Designer Showcase in Cashiers, North Carolina in August, is the first in a series of tiny homes that Dungan designed for Clayton Homes. (Submitted/Special to the Knoxville News Sentinel)

Architect Jeffrey Dungan said it was important to keep the tiny home’s dimensions between 12-feet-tall and 12 ½-feet-wide so that it could be transported by road and under bridges. The “Low Country” model pictured here at Cashiers Designer Showcase in Cashiers, North Carolina in August, is the first in a series of tiny homes that Dungan designed for Clayton Homes.

Vaulted ceilings give the impression of spaciousness and offer additional wall space for mounting storage and lofted sleeping areas, according to architect Jeffrey Dungan. Pictured here is the interior of the "Low Country" model designed as part of Jeffrey Dungan Collection for Clayton Homes. (Submitted/Special to the Knoxville News Sentinel)

Vaulted ceilings give the impression of spaciousness and offer additional wall space for mounting storage and lofted sleeping areas, according to architect Jeffrey Dungan. Pictured here is the interior of the “Low Country” model designed as part of Jeffrey Dungan Collection for Clayton Homes. (Submitted/Special to the Knoxville News Sentinel)

"It's more about designing much more meticulously, design by the cubic inch instead of by the square foot," said Jeffrey Dungan of his thoughtful use of the limited space in a tiny home. (Submitted/Special to the Knoxville News Sentinel)

“It’s more about designing much more meticulously, design by the cubic inch instead of by the square foot,” said Jeffrey Dungan of his thoughtful use of the limited space in a tiny home. (Submitted/Special to the Knoxville News Sentinel)

Lofty 12-foot ceilings leave plenty of space for bunk beds in the "Low Country" tiny home model, built by Clayton Homes. (Submitted/Special to the Knoxville News Sentinel)

Lofty 12-foot ceilings leave plenty of space for bunk beds in the “Low Country” tiny home model, built by Clayton Homes. (Submitted/Special to the Knoxville News Sentinel)

Every square inch of Clayton Homes Designer Series Tiny Homes has been carefully considered to accommodate high-end amenities, such as this full bathroom in the "Low Country" model home. (Supplied/Special to the Knoxville News Sentinel)

Every square inch of Clayton Homes Designer Series Tiny Homes has been carefully considered to accommodate high-end amenities, such as this full bathroom in the “Low Country” model home. (Supplied/Special to the Knoxville News Sentinel)

Last week, the Clayton home building group took their “Low Country” tiny home prototype to the Cashiers Designer Showcase in North Carolina. The event attracted interior designers and builders from around the region to explore new trends.

“People were very excited,” said Jeffrey Dungan, whose company designed the prototype. “It was almost like a childlike response, even with people who are 70 years old. I don’t know quite what it is, there’s this youthful exuberance when you talk about tiny homes and when they get to actually stand in one.”

Most people were surprised it did not feel like a “playhouse” and that it was actually really comfortable, said Dungan

“I could have sold it 15 times. People pulled out their checkbooks and offered money on the spot,” said Dungan of the response to the low country-inspired tiny house.

Dungan, a renowned Birmingham, Ala.-based architect, has partnered with Clayton building group, a division of Clayton Homes and one of America’s largest homebuilders, to bring luxury tiny homes to the housing market that the architect would not ordinarily reach.

The “Low Country” model tiny home, which was showcased in Cashiers, is 396 square feet and retails for $96,000.

“Clayton approached us to design a series of five homes and this is the first one that they’ve actually constructed,” he said. “Instead of me designing all of them, I have a talented crew that works with me, so everybody took a day to sit around and sketch, look at inspiration and share ideas. We took the best of the bunch and pursued those.”

In addition to the “Low Country” there are four different models in the series: Adirondak, Saltbox, Marseille and Cloudbreak. They range in size from 386-399 square feet.

The designers looked at different styles of architecture across the country and in Europe. “We looked at the low country in South Carolina, the Saltbox in New England, the Adirondacks in upstate New York, the French countryside, and beach huts in the Bahamas, Cape Cod or Malibu.”

“We really loved the whole attitude of being at the beach and escaping and that’s what little houses are about,” said Dungan. “Cloudbreak was inspired by beach style, surf shacks and places that sell beer and Jerk chicken in the Bahamas.”

“It’s more about designing much more meticulously, designing by the cubic inch rather than by the square foot,” said Dungan, who is more accustomed to designing high-end residences with a minimum of 7,000-8,000 square feet.

Planning and then manufacturing a small home off-site comes with its unique set of challenges according to Dungan. “Everything was a little different,” he said. “There were the restraints of working within 400 square feet — it couldn’t be more than 12 ½ feet wide to get them down the road or more than 12 feet tall to go under bridges.” This led to the modification of roof pitch in some cases.

Dungan admits to never watching shows like “Tiny House Nation”.

“When I started this study, what I reacted to was how DIY they looked,” he said. “There was a lack of overall elegance and sophistication in a lot of what I saw.”

Dungan hoped to bring the elegance and sophistication of his firm’s work into a tiny place. “I wanted the quality of the Faberge egg with details and wonderful materials,” he said. “Because you are doing something small you can afford to work with better materials. I was very impressed with Clayton’s joinery, the craftsmanship and just the materials themselves I didn’t feel like I was in a less nice space than I was accustomed to.”

Inside the prototype they opted for reclaimed materials such as the ceiling beams and the hardwood floors, and used for wood for the ceilings and vertical ship lap for the walls so there is no Sheetrock at all.

The exterior is clad in poplar bark siding with cedar shake on the roof.

Dungan said it is economical to heat and cool and the windows have the highest insulation value.

“In all of the designs we were very mindful of the 3-D space,” said Dungan. “The vaulted ceiling created wall space for additional storage and sleeping space. It can sleep up to six or eight people and that totally blows my mind.”

They may be small in stature, but do not lack for amenities. The “Low Country” accommodates eight — two in the bedroom, two in the loft area, two on a fold-out couch and two bunks. There are large French doors that open out onto a covered front porch, a full-height pantry, as well as a dishwasher and stack washer and dryer.

The architect likened the production of the “Low Country” prototype to making pancakes.

“When you are cooking your pancakes if you don’t get the heat and batter right for the first one, you adjust it,” he said. “For our first pancake, it was a heck of a good one and I’m hoping that our second and third ones will be even better.”

And Dungan said a website is in the works, where buyers can customize their home. Choosing from a myriad colors, materials and exterior options. “It will give people the flexibility to personalize their tiny home,” he added.


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Single family home sales fall 7.6% | Katonah Real Estate

United States New Home Sales  

Sales of new single-family houses in the United States fell 7.6 percent to a seasonally adjusted annual rate of 609,000 in August of 2016, better than market expectations of an 8.8 percent decline. Figures for the previous month were revised up by 5,000 to 659,000, the highest since 2007. New Home Sales in the United States averaged 652.45 Thousand from 1963 until 2016, reaching an all time high of 1389 Thousand in July of 2005 and a record low of 270 Thousand in February of 2011. New Home Sales in the United States is reported by the U.S. Census Bureau.

United States New Home Sales
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Construction worker shortage | South Salem Real Estate

The drumbeat of hammers echoes most mornings through suburban Denver, where Jay Small, the owner of company that frames houses, is building about 1,300 new homes this year.

That’s more than triple what he built a few years ago, when “you couldn’t buy a job” in the residential construction industry, he said.

Now, builders can’t buy enough workers to get the job done.

Eight years after the housing bust drove an estimated 30 percent of construction workers into new fields, homebuilders across the country are struggling to find workers at all levels of experience, according to the National Association of Homebuilders. The association estimates that there are approximately 200,000 unfilled construction jobs in the U.S. – a jump of 81 percent in the last two years.

The ratio of construction job openings to hiring, as measured by the Department of Labor, is at its highest level since 2007.

“The labor shortage is getting worse as demand is getting stronger,” said John Courson, chief executive of the Home Builders Institute, a national nonprofit that trains workers in the construction field.

The impact is two-fold. Without enough workers, residential construction is trailing demand for homes, dampening the overall economy.

And with labor costs rising, homebuilders are building more expensive homes to maintain their margins, which means they are abandoning the starter home market. That has left entry-level homes in tight supply, shutting out may would-be buyers at a time when mortgage rates are near historic lows.

Nationwide, there are 17 percent fewer people working in construction than at the market peak, with some states – including Arizona, California, Georgia and Missouri – seeing declines of 20 percent or more, according to data from the Associated General Contractors of America.

The labor shortage is raising builders’ costs – and workers’ wages – and slowing down construction.

Small, the Denver builder, estimates that he could construct at least 10 percent more homes this year if he had enough workers. But he remains short-staffed, despite raising pay to levels above what he paid during the housing bubble a decade ago.

“It’s getting to the point where you’re really limited in what you can deliver,” Small said. “We lost so many people in the crash, and we’re just not getting them back.”


The average construction cost of building a single family home is 13.7 percent higher now than in 2007, even as the total costs of building and selling a house – a figure that includes such items as land costs, financing and marketing – are up just 2.9 percent over the same period, according to a survey by the National Association of Homebuilders.

The problem is accentuated by strong demand for newly constructed homes, with sales reaching a nine-year high in July.

Private companies say that they are having a hard time attracting workers, and they are often forced to give employees on-the-spot raises to prevent them from going to competitors. Carpenters and electricians are often listed as the most in-demand specialties.

Tony Rader, the vice president of Schwob Building Company, a general contractor in the Dallas area, said his company has started handing out flyers at sporting events, churches and schools in hopes of luring more people into the field.

“The biggest problem I face every day is where are we going to find the people to do the work,” he said, adding that it’s becoming increasingly common for his company and others to turn down projects.

Dallas contractors are fighting over the limited supply of workers as three major mixed-use projects are going up right next to each other on the so-called “$5 billion mile” in Frisco, a northern suburb. Meanwhile, the metropolitan area is adding about 30,000 newly built homes annually.

With fewer workers, contractors are becoming wary of signing new work contracts, especially as many of them include fines for not completing a job by a designated date.

“I’ve got two lawsuits right now where it may cost us mid-six-figures because there’s not enough labor out there to get it done,” said one contractor in the North Dallas area who declined to be identified.

Lawyers in hot residential markets say that it is becoming increasingly common for construction companies to try to negotiate for more time.

“Subcontractors are having a hard time staffing up,” said Edward Allen, a Denver attorney who said he has seen more lawsuits over project delays in the past two years.


Colorado alone will need 30,000 more workers in the construction field in the next six years, a number that does not account for those who will retire, according to a study by the Association of General Contractors.

The state passed a bill last year pledging $10 million over three years to fund free training for plumbers, electricians and carpenters.

Yet Michael Smith, who heads a Denver-based nonprofit that administers the training, said that he can’t fill the seats. High schools are focused on preparing students for college, ignoring those that may be better suited for vocational work. Students may be put off by construction’s reputation as a dangerous, cyclical field, he said.

“We’ve so demonized working with your hands in this country,” he said. “We’ve got a booming economy, and we can’t keep up with the pace of growth.”

Students who go through the four-week program are all but guaranteed a job paying $16 an hour or more immediately, with the possibility of commanding $80,000 or more in annual income after five years without taking on any student debt, he said.

On-the-job training is also a common path for new workers. Eduardo Salcido – a 25-year-old concrete finisher working at a 232-home Toll Brothers subdivision going up in the Denver suburb of Broomfield – said that he received on-site training after entering the construction field as a painter.

He has earned one raise since beginning the training two years ago and is now certified as a semi-skilled finisher.


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Clintons buy adjacent Chappaqua property | Chappaqua Real Estate

While on the campaign trail in hopes of re-occupying the White House come January, Hillary and Bill Clinton have more than doubled the size of their Chappaqua sprawl with the recent $1.16 million purchase of a home adjacent to their current 15 Old House Lane compound.

The 1.51-acre, three-bedroom, four-bath, ranch-style property at 33 Old House Lane shares the end of a cul-de-sac with the couple’s original 1.1-acre spread, which they acquired for $1.7 million back in 1999 (and which recently housed the Democratic presidential nominee during her much-discussed bought with pneumonia).

Coincidentally or not, the New Castle Town Board has since designated the stretch of road leading up to said cul-de-sac a local-traffic-only street, according to Statesman Journal. Shortly after, the Clintons’ secret service reportedly barricaded the street and began screening cars, though town administrator Jill Shapiro stated that the police chief had received a request for security reasons.

The Douglas Elliman listing (which is, naturally, now closed) boasted of the address’s “open floor plan, pecan wood floors throughout, [and] modern chef’s kitchen,” which “opens to an eating area with fireplace and the family room all with built-in cabinetry.”


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Home Improvements Push Residential Construction Spending Up | Mt Kisco Real Estate

NAHB analysis of Census Construction Spending data shows that total private residential construction spending for July registered a seasonally adjusted rate of $445.5 billion, slightly up from the June downwardly revised estimate.

The monthly gains are largely attributed to the strong growth of private construction spending on home improvements that rose to a seasonally adjusted annual rate of $147.5 billion in July, up by 1.5% since last month. Meanwhile, spending on single-family and multifamily both declined in July. Single-family spending edged down to $238.1 billion in July, down 0.2% over the revised June estimate. After hitting the record-breaking highs earlier this year, multifamily spending decreased to $59.8 billion, down by 0.6% since June. On an annual basis, however, multifamily spending increased by 19.8%. Single-family spending was also 1.7% higher since July 2015.

The NAHB construction spending index, which is shown in the graph below (the base is January 2000), illustrates the strong growth in new multifamily construction since 2010, while new single-family construction and home improvements spending have drifted upward at a more modest pace. NAHB anticipates growth for new single-family spending over the rest of 2016, consistent with the modest rise in single-family starts.


The pace of private nonresidential construction spending rose 1.7% on a monthly basis, and was 7.1% higher than the July 2015 estimate. The largest contribution to this year-over-year nonresidential spending gain was made by the class of office (30.3% increase), followed by lodging (28.0% increase) and commercial (13.5% increase).


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